Nottingham is the least car-dependent city in England, closely followed by London and Brighton and Hove, according to new reaserch by the Campaign for Better Transport (CBT).
The campaigning group looked for the first time at how dependent people are on cars in major cities.
It suggests that providing sustainable transport choices would be a solution.
Notttingham is the only city that will introduce a workplace parking levy next year, which will see employees (or their employers) charged hundreds of pounds a year to park at work.
The move is designed to reduce congestion in the city.
The CBT used data from 17 different sources to rank 19 cities in England.
It found that the best cities for giving people real transport choices are:
- Brighton and Hove
The worst for dependency on the car are:
- Milton Keynes
Stephen Joseph, chief executive of Campaign for Better Transport said: “Our report shows that for many people, car use is not a matter of choice but is due to other options just not being available. Factors such as lack of local facilities, poor public transport or bad conditions for cyclists and pedestrians can mean that people are reliant on a car, with congestion and pollution the result.
“There have been improvements in many cities, but cuts in government spending, for instance support for local bus services, could harm these. City authorities must also make sure that they prioritise their remaining funding on sustainable forms of transport and ensure that planning policies protect local shops and services.”